The Bibliography of Sociology of Education
Sociology of education is an essential subject for student teachers because it teaches that schools are microcosms of society, whose activities are dictated by societal needs. Sociology of education also teaches that the learning process extends beyond the classroom, into the child’s life at home and in their interaction with larger society. To reach their target audience, educators must first understand the societal needs of their students. This knowledge helps educators pitch relevant content to a particular audience.
Critics of sociology of education
Some critics of sociology of education point out that many of its theories rest on other assumptions about the social world. The most prominent example is the idea that high school diplomas and university degrees are equivalent, a notion that may be questioned given the high costs of higher education. Critics also point out that such a view does not take into account the fact that educational systems have expanded dramatically over the past century. These critics point out that they do not consider the broader cultural context in which schools operate, and that there are also a variety of social conditions that contribute to the formation of educational systems in different countries.
Marxist theories dominated the sociology of education in the 1970s and 1980s. Although many sociologists still reference Marxist authors, they tend to combine the theory with other ideas. For example, Kennelly and Dillabough’s study of working-class students in Vancouver, Canada, used phenomenology to examine the factors affecting their learning. They also employed Althusser’s concept of ideology in their study.
Emile Durkheim, a French sociologist and co-founder of sociology, criticized the concept of social capital. He believed that a child’s educational outcomes depended on the amount of social capital they had acquired. This capital could be seen in different forms, and it may differ from one individual to the next. However, he did not deny the significance of social capital to the formation of a society, and the role it plays in achieving that end.
As a part of the sociology of education, feminist theory focuses on the ways in which sex and gender are reflected in educational processes. This movement has seen enormous shifts from the nineteenth century to the present day. Feminism has had three general waves. The first wave was linked to the women’s rights and suffrage movements, which sought to give women equal rights to men. Consequently, many feminist scholars today take a critical feminist approach to sociology of education.
Social interaction within a school environment is also critical for developing gender roles.
Furthermore, teachers’ expectations of students are based on the social context of the school. All of these factors influence learning. While sociological approaches to education are not infallible, they do have a basis in social interactions. The study of the relationship between social interaction and educational outcomes has many critical aspects. These factors may explain why certain educational issues have become so important.
The field of sociology of education examines individual experiences with schooling, educational outcomes, and social policy. Sociologists also study the relationships between different variables, such as race, class, and gender, to understand the causes and effects of educational inequality. The bibliography for this discipline contains citations for works that address aspects of schooling, and have significant influence on the field as a whole. Below are some of the most important works in the field.
A hypothesis is an assumption about the relationship between two variables. It is a conjectural statement based on a theory, observation, pattern, or existing literature. It aims to test a guess or generalisation in a logical, testable fashion. A positivist approach, on the other hand, uses empirical data to make inferences about the relationships between variables. This method is known as a positivist approach to sociology.
A sociology study employs a scientific method to collect data. The researcher gathers information through interviews, questionnaires, and life histories. These results help to inform the government of the effects of various policies. Moreover, the study’s findings may lead to the identification of trends in educational policy. Thus, the method of sociology of education is a valuable tool for educational researchers. There are many applications of the method.
One of the main goals of sociology is to investigate social phenomena. But, unlike physical sciences, sociology cannot use the experiment method. The sociologist cannot experiment in an artificial laboratory; he must study real life conditions. In addition, the comparative method involves studying different groups of people to gain clues about their social behavior. The comparative method is the most popular approach to sociology of education. This method is best used when an observer wants to study a group of people that has similar characteristics and behaviors.
One example of a sociological experiment is the Dauphin experiment, conducted between 1974 and 1979 in a city in Manitoba called “The Garden City of Manitoba”. In this experiment, each family was given a modest monthly income called the mincome. This monthly income was equal to 60 percent of the low-income cut-off figure, which differs by family size. The mincome was 50 cents per dollar lower for families that received other income sources, such as welfare or unemployment benefits.
Theories of sociology of education are based on different assumptions about how the social world works. These assumptions include ontology and epistemology. This article outlines the main sociology of education theories. To understand what each theory means, let’s look at some of the most famous ones. In addition, we’ll look at the implications for educational policy. Let’s examine the different theories and what they mean for educators and society.
The Marxist approach to sociology of education began with the social activism of the 1960s, which provided fertile ground for Marxist theory. Two important contributions to Marxist social reproduction analysis were made in the sociology of education in the 1970s. Louis Althusser and
Samuel Bowles, along with Herbert Gintis, were two of the first to apply this theory to education.
However, the theory continues to grow despite the lack of support from some sociologists.
The Marxist view of education argues that educational institutions are products of dominant worldviews and thus produce educational experiences that disadvantage minority groups. This in turn reproduces power and oppression in society. For instance, ethnic studies courses in public schools are a way to bring balance to a curriculum dominated by white colonialism. In contrast, a more realistic view of educational institutions is more likely to support a theory based on a Marxist framework.
Functionalist theory: This theory proposes that the existence of norms in the school environment is functional to the system. In other words, deviance and conformity are both products of social conditions. The latter theory has its place in the school environment, but the former is primarily concerned with individual traits and values. This view suggests that deviance and social gap cannot exist without the presence of norms. In other words, the role of norms in educational contexts is crucial.
The functionalist view highlights that education systems have many positive functions. They teach necessary skills and core values, allocate roles and promote meritocracy. They also say that education systems reduce the exclusion rate. The functionalist perspective, however, is criticized by Marxists who argue that they only serve the rich. The functionalist view has its drawbacks. It is often argued that education systems are biased in favor of the elite, which are often the most well-off.
The neo-Weberian approach to education is a central component of this discipline, as is the study of ideology, which is often referred to as social constructionism. This theory describes the development of the human society and focuses on various aspects of society, including class, race, and gender. While some theories focus on particular aspects of society, the importance of understanding the evolution of sociology in education is important for identifying relevant theoretical approaches.
While basic researchers aim to inform the public debate, social interventionists seek to intervene in the political system. Comte viewed applied researchers as in between these two positions, and thus he described them as being “in-between.”
Nonetheless, both views have their merits. Some critical sociologists argue that education systems reinforce inequalities and are not beneficial for the disadvantaged. In other words, education has many implications. Critics of tracking, for instance, point out that public schools have failed to address the underlying societal conditions, which perpetuate social inequality. Hence, critical sociologists focus on the institutions of education. They study how the school system functions and what influences its functioning.
Although applied sociology is largely considered an academic field, the discipline has wideranging uses that extend far beyond academia. The aim of applied sociology is to create positive social change through active intervention. In some cases, practitioners of sociology work with specific groups, and apply their knowledge and research to answer specific research questions. Applied sociology has a synergy with public sociology, which aims to inform the public and stimulate informed dialogue.
Theorists of socialization believe that education plays an important role in society. For example, functionalists believe that education prepares people for different roles in society. In contrast, critical sociologists see education as a means of widening social inequality. Feminist theorists argue that education contributes to sexism in society. Meanwhile, symbolic interactionists study the dynamics of the classroom, as well as between the students and teachers.